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Some Notes on Froebel

Dear Reader,

If you have read through Charlotte Mason’s volumes, you may have noticed she mentions some guy named Froebel occasionally. Friedrich Froebel (1782-1852) is known as the founder of the kindergarten movement. For my own purposes, I have done a little reading about him and his ideas. I thought I would share with you the notes I have made on him. This is really only a scratching of the surface, but hopefully it can help you (and me) begin to understand the situation in Charlotte’s day. I have given a very brief bibliography at the end. I began with an internet search and ended up buying (on Kindle) and reading selections form Froebel’s The Education of Man, which seems to be his foundational work, comparable to Charlotte Mason’s Home Education, though much shorter.

Friedrich Froebel

Theology/Religion:

  • “the son of a Lutheran minister and a devout Christian” (from “A Brief History of the Kindergarten”)
  • speak of the Unity (big “U”) which he then identifies with God
  • seems to be a very Unitarian (at least not Trinitarian) view
  • Jesus (as far as I have read) seems to be spoken of as an example, not God incarnate and not a savior; he is “our highest ideal” (Education of Man, #94)
  • there is an eternal law, known through the external and the internal (but no mention of Scripture)
  • “the divine effluence” lives in all things; all is united
  • speaks of unity (God), diversity (nature) and individuality (man), but still all is Unity

The Nature of the child and of man

  • did not believe in original sin; man’s natural state is unmarred:
  • “. . . the nature of man is in itself good . . . Man is by no means naturally bad, nor has he originally bad or evil qualities and tendencies . . .” (Education of Man, #51)

  • this state is rarely seen; it is usually very brief
  • though he doesn’t use the word sin, he sees the bad parts of human nature coming in when the child is somehow interfered with; the bad comes from without, not within the individual
  • ” . . .a suppressed or perverted good quality — a good tendency, only repressed, misunderstood, or misguided — lies originally at the bottom of every shortcoming in man” (Education of Man, #52)

  • ” . . . it generally is some other human being, not unfrequently the educator himself, that first makes the child or the boy bad. This is accomplished by attributing evil — or, at least, wrong — motives to all that the child or boy does from ignorance, precipitation, or even from a keen and praiseworthy sense of right and wrong.” (Education of Man, #52)

  • The cure for badness is to find and cultivate the good that has been repressed and to build it up again. “Thus the shortcoming will at last disappear, although it may involve a hard struggle against habit, but not against original depravity in man.” (Education of Man, #52)
  • once a child is given a bad start, it is hard, if not impossible, to come back from
  • people are inherently creative because they are made in the image of God and God was first (ie in Genesis) a Creator
  • the child goes through a kind of evolution (my word, not his) mirroring what all of humanity has gone through; the individual’s growth mirrors that of the race

Ideas about Education:

  • massive development occurs between birth and age 3
  • though he argues against clear lines between the stages of life, he clearly sees different developmental stages
  • because we can have such a profound effect on children, what we do is vitally important. We can mess up their progress for life because each stage depends upon the next. And once we screw them up, it is very hard to rectify.
  • children learn about life through games: “Play is the highest expression of human development in childhood, for it alone is the free expression of what is in a child’s soul.”
  • “Froebel believed that playing with blocks gives fundamental expression to a child’s soul and to the unity of life. Blocks represent the actual building blocks of the universe. The symmetry of the soul is symbolized as a child constructs with blocks, bringing them together to form a whole.” (from “Friedrich Froebel: His Life and Influence on Education”) 
  • The goal of education is a kind of metaphysical unity. “The aim of instruction is to bring the scholar to insight into the unity of all things, into the fact that all things have their being and life in God, so that in due time he may be able to act and live in accordance with this insight.” (Education of Man, #56)
  • The teacher is of paramount importance because he is “an intelligent consciousness” which “hovers over and between the outer world and the scholar, which unites in itself the essence of both, mediating between the two, imparting to them language and mutual understanding.” (Education of Man, #56)

Parts of a Froebel education:

  • Kindergarten (ages 4-6?): creative play, singing and dancing, observing and nurturing plants (this is not from Froebel’s book but from others writing about him)
  • Subjects for ages 6-8/9: he mentions religious instruction as the first subject but this is not Christianity as we define it; he did not use the Bible in his schools
  • nature is to be known for it is a revelation of God (see Education of Man, p. 252 for examples of lesson); heavy on classification; seems to be more about “object lessons”; he later mentions short excursions and walks outdoors
  • other subjects: physical exercise, to learn to control the body; language exercises, beginning with object lessons (see Education of Man, p. 273); mathematics comes out of this; geometry (see below); color which includes painting; grammatical exercises; writing; reading (seems to follow writing, oddly enough)
  • there is an emphasis on what we would call geometry; he likes shapes and forms because of his emphasis on the ideal and on unity; his famous “gifts” (ie wooden blocks and other such toys) were used for this
  • Stories: boys learn about their own lives by studying those of others; this is why they love legends and tales

In the spectrum of belief (as described by CM in Parents and Children, chapter 4):

  • tabula rasa — children are blank slates
  • children are empty vases (Pestalozzi)
  • children are plants  <———— Froebel
  • “children are born persons” (CM)

Later Influence:

  • influenced art and architecture incl. Frank Lloyd Wright and Buckminster Fuller; Klee, Kandinsky, Mondrian
  • influenced later educationalists incl. Montessori and Steiner (Waldorf)

What CM had to say about him/his work:

  • Good principles but bad, “wooden” practices: “On the whole, we may say that some of the principles which should govern Kindergarten training are precisely those in which every thoughtful mother endeavours to bring up her family; while the practices of the Kindergarten, being only ways, amongst others, of carrying out these principles, and being apt to become stereotyped and wooden, are unnecessary, but may be adopted so far as they fit in conveniently with the mother’s general scheme for the education of her family.” (Home Education, p. 181)
  • kindergarten (garden) idea tends to negate the individuality of the child: “And yet I enter a caveat. Our first care should be to preserve the individuality, to give play to the personality, of children. Now persons do not grow in a garden, much less in a greenhouse.” (Home Education, p. 186; see also Parents and Children, chapter 4)
  • “Organised Games are not Play” (School Education, chapter 4)
  • ” . . . it is questionable whether the conception of children as cherished plants in a cultured garden has not in it an element of weakness.” (School Education, chapter 6)

Sources:

Friedrich Froebel: His Life and Influence on Education,” by Miriam LeBlanc at Community Playthings

Froebelweb.org

A Brief History of the Kindergarten,” at Froebel Gifts.com

Froebel’s Kindergarten Curriculum Method & Educational Philosophy,” at Froebel Gifts.com

The Education of Man, by Friedrich Froebel.  Translated by W.N. Hailmann. New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1908.

 

 

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My Literature List

Dear Reader,

Like a lot of you, I have collected lists of books, some form here, some from there. I had one document but it was very rough and unedited. Promoted by a friend, I took the time recently to edit it as best I can. I have tried to keep this list for books that we would consider literature/fiction/free reading/read alouds, but a few non-fiction books have crept onto the list. The line between history and historical fiction is a particularly fuzzy one.

There are many authors who have written more than one good book; some are quite prolific. For the most part, I have not listed every work so if you see an author listed here and then find other books of theirs, you may want to check them out. I have also tried to indicate in the “notes” column if I know the author has more to offer.

The “code” column relates to who in my family has read a book; you can ignore it.

I have gone back and forth on “level” and opted in the end for the simplest divisions. I have four main categories: picture (books), elementary, middle and high school (HS). Picture books are the most obvious. Elementary books are intended to be those an elementary student could read on their own. This includes a wide range from easy readers to chapter books to slightly more substantial but still relatively simple works. Middle is almost a catch-all between elementary and high school. Books on the high school category are placed there for various reasons relating to both reading level and content.  I also have middle+ and HS+ for those books which seem at the upper end of their age brackets; again this may be about content and not just reading level.

One last note: don’t be bound too much by levels. If a book is truly living, it will likely be enjoyed by all ages so your middle schooler can still listen to a picture book. And when read aloud, kids can understand and appreciate books well above their level. Some of our favorite read alouds were books that I thought were well above my kids at the time — I’ve read Don Quixote and Robin Hood and Dickens to elementary students to good effect.

I will try to update this list as we find more books we like. There are a few on the list which we haven’t used but which I have heard of so much that I felt they could stay (we never read Pinocchio, for instance).

Here then is the list:

My Big Literature List (opens a google doc)

If you have suggestions or corrections, let me know. It may be there are books I forgot (I think there must be a lot!) or haven’t heard of and we are always looking for new choices.

Happy reading!

Nebby

All the CM Curricula Compared

Dear Reader,

I have done a series of posts comparing various Charlotte Mason curricula. As the number of them has expanded, I realize this has become a bit cumbersome for you, the reader. So this is my attempt to put it all in one place (plus one additional curriculum is included!).

Methodology

A little background — my goal has been to present what each curriculum has to say about itself rather than to give my opinions. I tried to choose the questions I would have when comparing curricula. Topics range from What does it cost? to How does it deal with high school science? to How Christian is it?

There is a lot out there for homeschoolers these days and the list seems to be ever-expanding. The curricula I have chosen to compare are all from Ambling along Together’s list of CM curricula.  Each purports to be a Charlotte Mason style curricula (as compared to merely “CM influenced” or adaptable). Though I have made use of many of these websites and have taken bits and pieces from various sources, I do not use any of these curricula exclusively. I do have some opinions, but I don’t have one favorite curriculum.

The Curricula

I have gone back and forth on even putting this section in. I don’t want to bias you with my own opinions but I do realize it is helpful just to have some sort of list of everything with brief introductions. Let me say from the start that I am overwhelmed by the work and generosity of all the people behind these curricula. Most are homeschool moms who have taken the time to put together quite extensive resources that they either give away or sell quite affordably (I can’t imagine anyone is getting rich off of any of these). Most are also works-in-progress; even old stand-bys like Ambleside Online are still improving and changing.

Here then are the curricula I will look at, in no particular order:

Ambleside Online (AO) — If you have been at this for a while, Ambleside may have been your first introduction to CM; it seems like it has been around forever. As with all these curricula, you buy the books, but otherwise AO is free online. While they are still updating and perfecting AO, it is a relatively complete curriculum with a reputation for being rigorous.

Simply Charlotte Mason (SCM) — Simply Charlotte Mason is another one that has been around for a while. There is much here that can be used for free but the biggest expansion on the SCM site seems to be in the store where more and more ready-made materials are available. A modular approach, it has a reputation for being a little less intimidating and easier to adapt for families with multiple ages.

The Alveary — A newer curriculum with a lot of buzz (pun intended). It’s big selling point is that it is a CM curriculum for the 21st century. Though the curriculum is newer, the folks at CMI who are behind it have been around for a while.

A Delectable Education (ADE) — The biggest part of ADE is the podcast, but one can also get a consultation for personalizes curriculum help and suggestions. This personalization is one of the big selling points. The other is a commitment being “purely CM”; the ladies at ADE will admit that this too is a work in progress but their goal is to ask how CM herself would have done things and to, in some sense, return to those roots.

A Modern Charlotte Mason (MCM) — As the name suggests, MCM also aims to combine more modern works with the classics in a CM education. Flexibility in terms of use with families or individual students is another big selling point.

Living Books Curriculum (LBC) — A CM approach, living books based curriculum with a vision for and ministry to those in less developed countries as well (especially in Africa).

Higher Up and Further In (HUFI) — Book lists and schedules for CM learning.

Gentle Feast — A newer contribution to the world of CM with a gentle, family-centered approach with personal consultations available.

Wildwood — Still fairly new with a lot still to be done, this is the only inherently secular CM curriculum I know of.

Ambleside Schools International — Despite the name, this curriculum is not affiliated with Ambleside Online. Like Charlotte’s PNEU, it trains teachers and provides curricula for schools as well as homeschoolers. Heavy on training and support with weekly mentoring. Though less well-known, they have been around quite a while.

The Charts

Though the goal of this post is to put everything on one place, I still can’t figure out a good way to put it all in one document. Here then, in three documents, are all the CM curricula compared:

SCM ADE AO Alveary 5-8-17

MCM LBC HUFI 3-3-17

Gentle Feast Wildwood Ambleside Schools 9-5-17

As always, let me know of updates and revisions. Consider this page a work in progress; I will try to update as there are new curricula available or changes in current ones.

Nebby

Two More CM Curricula Compared

Dear Reader,

See my most updated post on CM curricula here.

In previous posts I have looked at some of the major Charlotte Mason curricula out there. Well, it turns out there is always something new. This time, I am looking at A Gentle Feast and Wildwood. The latter is the first secular CM curriculum I have seen. It is also, thus far, in the beginning stages it appears so there was not a lot I could say about a number of subjects. I think you can get a fairly good idea of it and, if your theology/life philosophy does not fit with the standard CM outlook it is probably a good place to start. In general, my object in these posts is to let the curricula speak for themselves and not to give you my own opinions of them or to sat which is most “CM.”

The previous posts are here:

Four CM Curricula Compared

Three More CM Curricula Compared

And here is today’s contribution:

CM curricula third 8-5-17

As always, please let me know of any changes you see. I am by no means an expert in all of these.

Nebby

Living Books on the 2000s

Dear Reader,

We are finishing up modern/American history! Here is my last booklist on this era. You can find all my booklists here.

Living Books on the 2000s

As we neared the end of the school year, I tried to zero in on the biggest topics to cover from the years 2000-2017. Here is the list I came up with:

  • The Election of 2000
  • The 9-11 Terrorist Attacks
  • The War on Terror including the War in Iraq
  • The Tsunami of 2004
  • Hurricane Katrina (2005)
  • The Obama Years

I am going to save 9-11 and the War on Terror for another post because there is so much to sort through but here is what I looked at for the rest of the 2000s:

Overview of the 2000s:

2000s 1

The 2000s: Decade in Photos by Jim Corrigan — photos but also text. About a 2 page spread on each topic. Not truly living perhaps but a way to get some events covered that one might not find other books on. Upper elementary to middle school. 57pp

The Election of 2000

Elaine Landau The 2000 Presidential Election — Not badly written. Seems relatively engaging. Upper elementary. 40pp. I had my 6th grader read it. She says “it was written well” and “it was fine.”

Election 2000: A Lesson in Civics — Very choppy. Author not easy to find. Not living.

Diana K. Sergis Bush v. Gore: Controversial Presidential Election Case — Focuses in the Supreme Court case. Gives historical perspective. Seems decent. Middle school level. 109 pp. I wish I had had time to have someone read this one.

Ted Gottfried The 2000 Election— Some historical perspective. Straight forward. Not too bad. Upper elementary to middle school. 55 pp

The Election of 2000 and the Administration of George W. Bush ed. by Arthur Schlesinger– Covers both the Election and Bush’s time in office. Seems too packed with names and numbers. Second half is mainly primary sources like speeches. Middle school. 120 pp

The Tsunami of 2004

In contrast to Katrina (see below), I found relatively few children’s book on the Tsunami that devastated Asia in December 2004.

The Killing Sea by Richard Lewis — fiction re two teens surviving the tsunami. High school. 220 pp. I wonder how it deals with religion and romance between the characters.

The Tsunami of 2004 by Gail P. Stewart — Middle school. 89pp. I had my 7th grader read this one. I like this series for modern non-fiction.

Hurricane Katrina (2005)

There are a lot of kids’ books on Katrina. It is one of those topics which seems to have fascinated writers at least. I tried to get all the middle school and up ones that I could from my local library and to at least skim through them so that I can point you to the best ones.

Fiction:

Zane and the Hurricane by Rodman Philbrick — The title of the first chapter is “My Stupid Trip to Smellyville.” The books says up front it will be gross and the tone, narrated by the tween (?) protagonist, is quite colloquial. I’m sure one can get facts about the hurricane from it but this is not great fiction. Middle school chapter book.

At the Crossroads by Travis Hunter — A longer chapter book, maybe later middle school. The narration isn’t quite so colloquial but the characters’ speech is. I got bored in the first chapter.

Buddy by M.H. Herlong — Though the young narrator uses his own dialect, this one’s a lot more readable. It’s the story of a boy and his dog in the hurricane. The first chapter makes me want to read more though I wouldn’t call it high quality writing. Middle school level again. Updated to add: I am reading this one aloud to my two middle schoolers and we are all enjoying it. The hurricane doesn’t come till at least half way through the book  but it is a good story that gives you a feel for the life of some of New Orleans’ poorer residents. I like that a lot of details, including even the race of the main characters, is implied and can be discerned but is not made too obvious.

Between Two Skies by Joanne O’Sullivan — From the start you can tell this one includes more of the unique culture of Louisiana, but the first chapter doesn’t capture my interest as much. Some concern over content as skimming through one character’s mother is described as “in too-short jeans and a bikini top, clearly wasted, … grinding up against some sketchy guy.” Not hard reading but I’d call it high school level for content.

Saint Louis Armstrong Beach by Brenda Woods — Another boy and dog story. A shorter book at only about 100 pages. But I can’t get into it and don’t particularly want to read it.

Hurricane Song by Paul Volponi — Life in the Superdome after Katrina hits. A broken family situation is prominent. This is the second most engaging book so far but it’s not that good. Middle school level again.

Finding Someplace by Denise Lewis Patrick — After chapter 1, I don’t really like these characters. Three vain kids concerned about trivial things and I’m sure the whole point of the book is that they learn what’s important but I just don’t care.

Another Kind of Hurricane by Tamara Ellis Smith — Hurricane Katrina and Tropical Storm Irene. Two boys, one from New Orleans and one from New Hampshire (?). I’m intrigued and willing to read more.

Zeitoun by Dave Eggers — From the adult section of the library. The main characters are adults, parents, but I think an older child (high school) could get into it. I may read the whole thing myself. Updated to add: I read this book. At times, I couldn’t put it down. But it was hard to read in the sense that there are a lot of tough events. I would not give this to anyone below high school and even then you might want to preview for content. I also did not like the portrayal of Christians. There were a few positive Christian characters but the bad ones stood out a lot more. This is a true story. The writing is not stellar.

Non-fiction:

The Storm compiled by Barbara Barbieri McGrath — students drawings and writings; picture book

Drowned City by Don Brown — graphic novel look; simply written but powerful because of the images and the glimpses into what people thought and felt. I don’t usually use graphic novels but this book was the right length for the time we had to fill for my 6th grader. She was very excited to read a “comic book.” I was shocked by how much detail she could narrate from such a book.

Mangled by a Hurricane by Miriam Aronin — as bad as it sounds

Hurricane Katrina: Survival Stories by Jeanne Marie Ford — 4 stories from Katrina. Okay but not overly engaging. Upper elementary

Hurricane Katrina: Devastation on the Gulf Coast by Debra A. Miller– I’ve liked some of Miller’s other books. She often gives a good overview interspersed with primary sources and divergent opinions on an issue. One of the better non-fiction books. 87pp. Middle school level

Hurricane Katrina: An Interactive Modern History Adventure by Blake Hoena — a choose your own adventure book. Upper elementary to middle school

The Obama Years

obama

The Obama View by Karen Gibson Bush — re the 2008 election. Seems decent though not great. The style is somewhat engaging. Upper elementary to early middle school. 40 pp. My 6th grader says it was okay.

Happy Reading!

Nebby

 

 

 

 

Living Books for High School Physics

Dear Reader,

My oldest did physics this year. We were lucky to find a co-op near us that was offering just the labs for physics without is having to do anything else. (In the past we have used Landry Labs for high school science labs. Sadly, they are now out of business.)

I didn’t realize when I signed up for the lab class that it required a textbook as well. They gave a choice between Apologia and Conceptual Physics. Since I’ve never been attracted to Apologia, I chose Conceptual Physics. This is a classic textbook. I tried to have my son do the problems but I didn’t have an answer key so that proved tough. And there were a lot of them for every section.

Midway through the year, I decided to see if I could find any other way to get him physics problems to do, which does seem necessary as physics is so math-based. The best source of such problems seemed to be AP material so in January I decided that the poor bot might as well do the AP Physics 1 test. I had him watch Khan Academy videos and use an AP practice book to prepare. Scores are still pending. I do think he has a shot at a 3 (out of 5) which will get him some college credit at most schools he is looking at. I know 3 is not top-tier but given that I sprung this on him mid-year, I will be happy if that’s what he gets.

So much for the other stuff — let’s get to the Living Books on High School Physics:

Six Easy Pieces by Richard Feynman — A series of lectures on physics of noted professor Feynman

Russell Stannard’s Uncle Albert Books: The Time and Space of Uncle Albert, Black Holes and Uncle Albert, and Uncle Albert and the Quantum Quest — These books could be done earlier, even in middle school. My son really enjoyed them and found them easy reading.

Physics for Future Presidents: The Science Behind the Headlines by Richard Muller — This is the last one my son will be getting to for the year. It covers topics like terrorism and global warming. He has an interest in politics as well so I think it will be very good for him. I love how it applies physics to our world.

How Things Work: The Physics of Everyday Life by Louis Bloomfield —  I purchased this book but did not end up using it for my son when I found out he was expected to sue the textbook instead. This book is very much like a textbook but seems a bit more accessible. It seems to cover all the basic concepts. I plan to have subsequent children use it.

For the Love of Physics by Walter Lewin — I only ran across this book recently. I purchased it but have not looked at it much. It looks very good and I suspect I will use it in the future.

physics-1.jpg

Lastly, I want to mention Paul Fleisher’s books. He has wonderful short but well-written introductions to various science concepts. They are really middle school level but if you have a child who is not quote so science-y I think you could sue them in high school too.

Happy reading!

Nebby

 

A CM Lifestyle for All

Dear Reader,

A Charlotte Mason approach doesn’t have to be limited to education or to children. Her ideas can benefit us grown-ups in the real world too! I stumbled across this article — “Why Darwin was a Slacker ad You Should be Too” by Alex Soojung-Kim Pang (nautil.us, March 30, 2017). It has everything — short “lessons,” frequent breaks and changes in focus, nature walks, the habit of attention. I really, really want to grow up to be a 19th century English writer now. Definitely a must-read.

Nebby

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