Posts Tagged ‘Bible’

Little Kids Sunday School Lesson

Dear Reader,

So I have been teaching the little kids’ Sunday school at our church for 2 years now. Little kids for us is 2-6 year olds. We have  a lot of African refuges in out church too so things can vary a lot.  Occasionally my class of 5-7 kids will swell to 12 kids and some will be older. The main criteria is that to move up they need to be able to read English well so my class is really  “those who can sit still for a short time up to those who can read decently.”

I have equivocated a lot on how I want to do lessons. Being a Charlotte Mason style educator, I have wanted to use her principles. In this context, I think that would mean real books, other real resources (like art), narration, not spoon-feeding kids the message, and not bribing them with treats of various sorts.

Here’s where the problem comes in. There is some of this we can’t do because of our theological convictions; there is some that doesn’t work well with these little kids. The theological first: we don’t depict Jesus or God in any of His persons. I know there is some debate over this; some are okay with pictures of Jesus in the context of a children’s Bible. But I have to do what all the parents would be comfortable with. So no pictures of God pretty much eliminates using fine art. We don’t sing hymns so, though hymn study is part of a CM education, we won’t be doing that. (In my own homeschool we do psalm study, but it doesn’t work with pre-readers.) And I am hopelessly tone deaf so sadly I can’t sing psalms with the kids which would be a good option.

But the heart of any lesson is the Word of God. My educational philosophy tells me we need to give kids the real text, aka the Bible.  I quickly found that just reading the Bible to kids this age did not keep their attention. We tried a popular story-Bible. Often it wasn’t any simpler in its telling then the actual Bible. And it adds a fair amount of interpretation. So I slid into basically telling the stories myself with visual aids. My retellings are also going to be interpretive. There is no avoiding this. I am of the opinion that any translation of the Bible is an interpretation and certainly a retelling is going to be. I suppose the difference here is that at least the layer of interpretation is mine. Whether that is a comfort to the parents of my students, I don’t know. One more note on the Bible — we went through the historical books of the Old Testament the last two years and I skipped very few stories, only those that were truly adult content. Almost all of the violence I included. They love those bits.

Let’s talk visual aids. In a perfect CM world perhaps we would not have such things. I justify them, and the use of retellings rather than the text itself, by the fact that my kids are really pre-school age. These are not kids that Charlotte would advocate giving any formal education to.  The reality of our situation is that we need to do something with them while the other classes go on. So educated they are, and we make concessions to their age. I am comforted by the fact that many CM educators begin teaching Shakespeare with retellings in narrative form. The Bible is a lot like Shakespeare. I try to vary what kind of visual aids we use; my go-tos are flannel graph (yay! flannel graph!), Fisher Price little people acting out the story, and puppets (puppet shows are always a big hit). As we get into studying the New Testament, and specifically the gospels, I expect to use the flannel graph a lot to avoid depicting Jesus with any specificity (my flannel graph characters are basically keyhole shaped outlines of people; this is because I am really bad at art).

We begin a lesson usually with prayer and then the story. That takes about 10 minutes. We have 20 more minutes to fill.  I like to ask the kids if they have questions or comments on the story. Turns out some 2 year olds don’t know what a question is. But if your kid is in my class, I know who mows the grass at your house (“my dad,” “my mom,” “my Aidan”). Seriously, though, some of the older kids have at times asked quite profound questions. Don’t underestimate what they can take in and process.

Then we do some sort of activity which is a response to the story. We have done various things, usually either in the game or craft category. As the years have progressed, I have decided that I like to give them something that fills the narration slot in a lesson. In a Charlotte Mason education, typically a student reads something and then narrates, either orally or in writing. Narration is telling what they read. It is a bit like reading comprehension but they say what they got from it rather then the teacher saying “this is what was important to me; I hope you can fill in the blanks.” The purpose of narration is not for the teacher but for the student, so they can cement their knowledge. If you can tell somebody else about something, then you know it yourself.

So what fills the slot of narration? At this age, it is some sort of worksheet, for lack of a better word. Think of it as a written narration for a young age. Older kids could draw pictures from the story; mine are too young to do that intelligibly. Coloring pages are boring so I try to come up with sheets that give them a little more to do. Putting events in the story in order works really well. Or maybe there is a part of the story that they can fill in. My main goal here is that they have something tangible to serve as a prompt to they can remember and retell the story themselves. This year, rather than sending these pages home each week, I am collecting them in loose leaf binders so each child will have a book at the end of the year with all the stories we have learned.

If there is still time, we may do another craft or game that relates in a more tangential way to the story. When our story has an animal (sheep, lion, etc.) in it, we can do a craft of that animal. Once we make construction paper beards. That was one of the most popular crafts ever. If we have a small class, we might also try to act out the story. That is another great way to get them to retell it for themselves.

So what does all this look like? I’m glad you asked — I really wish I had begun this in previous years when we were doing obscure Old Testament stories, but, well, I didn’t. This year I am posting videos of each lesson on YouTube:

My “channel”: The Sabbath School Lady

Lesson 1: Exile and Return in the Old Testament and the New

Lesson 2: The birth of John the Baptist (puppet show)

Lesson 2: The birth of John the Baptist (explanation/lesson)

And if you are looking for those oh-so-fancy worksheets I use:

lesson 1 exile and return craft

lesson 2 birth of john the baptist

 

Further updates will by posted on this page.

Nebby

 

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Is it Biblical?: CM’s 20th Principle

Dear Reader,

No, you did not miss 18 posts. I am skipping to Charlotte Mason’s 20th and final principle in my examination of the biblical foundation for her ideas. [Interesting fact: I didn’t fully realize till I began this series that CM did not always have 20 principles; in earlier volumes she lists 18.] I began this series with this post on what it means to be “pure CM” and why we should care. Simply put, Charlotte Mason claims that her philosophy of education is rooted in immutable divine law. Now divine law, as she uses the term, includes both special revelation (Scripture) and general revelation (science and observation, what we can discern from God’s creation). The latter is beyond my expertise to analyze, but I think we can hold Charlotte’s 20 Principles up to the light of Scripture and ask if they do indeed reflect what we find there. The phrase I am using, borrowed from my church’s membership vows, is “founded on and agreeable to the Scriptures.” My process with each of these is to present the principle, to look at how Charlotte herself explained it, and then to examine Bible passages which seem to speak to the same issues with the goal of answering the question “Is Charlotte’s principle ‘founded on and agreeable to’ the Scriptures?” In my previous post, I looked at Charlotte’s first principle, “Children are born persons,” and concluded that it is indeed well-rooted in the Scriptures.

For this second post, I am going to leap-frog to Charlotte’s final principle: “We allow no separation to grow up between the intellectual and ‘spiritual’ life of children, but teach them that the Divine Spirit has constant access to their spirits, and is their Continual Helper in all the interests, duties and joys of life.” If you are wondering about that tricky second principle, have no fear; I do plan to come back to it next time. I happen to think that the first and final principles form a kind of bookends to Charlotte’s whole philosophy and as such encapsulate the whole so I am tackling them first and then will come back to what lies between.

CM’s 20th Principle: What does it mean?

The first step in evaluating Miss Mason’s 20th principle is to see what she herself meant by it. Here again is the principle:

“We allow no separation to grow up between the intellectual and ‘spiritual’ life of children, but teach them that the Divine Spirit has constant access to their spirits, and is their Continual Helper in all the interests, duties and joys of life.”

This principle largely flows out of the first one; when we looked at Charlotte’s own remarks on her initial principle– “That children are born persons” — we saw that a major aspect of this idea was, for her, that children are spiritual beings. It follows upon this idea, she tells us, that they can and do have communion with the Divine Spirit (i.e. the Holy Spirit):

“That the divine Spirit has like intimate power of corresponding with the human spirit, needs not to be urged, once we recognise ourselves as spiritual beings at all.” (School Education, p. 71)

In volume 4, Ourselves, which reads a something of an owner’s manual for one’s mind, Charlotte discusses the role of the Holy Spirit in helping us to understand Scripture:

“It would seem as if the divine Spirit taught essential truths [of Scripture], the truths by which we live, by all means fitted to the understanding of men.” (Ourselves, pp. 88-89)

But, she tells us, the revelatory work of the Spirit is not confined to Scripture but is also at work in other realms of human knowledge:

“We may believe also, with the medieval Church, that a revelation is still going on of things not hitherto made known to men. Great secrets of nature, for example, would seem to be imparted to minds already prepared to receive them, as, for example, that of the ‘ions’ or ‘electrons’ of which that we call matter is said to consist. For this sort of knowledge also is of God, and is, I believe, a matter of revelation, given as the world is prepared to receive it.” (Ourselves, vol. 4, pp. 86-87)

It does not matter whether we call these subjects “sacred” or “secular” — Charlotte would call such a distinction “an Irreligious Classification” (Parents and Children, p. 129).  All knowledge comes from God:

 “In this great work we seek and assuredly find the co-operation of the Divine Spirit, whom we recognise, in a sense rather new to modern thought, as the supreme Educator of mankind in things that have been called secular, fully as much as in those that have been called sacred.” (School Education, p. 173)

Charlotte tells us that when big new ideas (such as gravity) come to humanity it is through the work of the Holy Spirit, but this work of the Spirit is not confined to big new revelations. He works in the same way in each of us as we receive new ideas and knowledge. It is God the Holy Spirit who provides men, both corporately and individually, with all knowledge. Even a child’s arithmetic lesson is under the dominion of God the Holy Spirit:

“Many Christian people rise a little higher; they conceive that even grammar and arithmetic may in some not very clear way be used for God; but the great recognition, that God the Holy Spirit is Himself, personally, the Imparter of knowledge, the Instructor of youth, the Inspirer of genius, is a conception so far lost to us that we should think it distinctly irreverent to conceive of the divine teaching as co-operating with ours in a child’s arithmetic lesson, for example. But the Florentine mind of the Middle Ages went further than this: it believed, not only that the seven Liberal Arts were fully under the direct outpouring of the Holy Ghost, but that every fruitful idea, every original conception, whether in Euclid, or grammar, or music, was a direct inspiration from the Holy Spirit, without any thought at all as to whether the person so inspired named himself by the name of God, or recognised whence his inspiration came. All of these seven figures are those of persons whom we should roughly class as pagans, and whom we might be lightly inclined to consider as outside the pale of the divine inspiration. It is truly difficult to grasp the amazing boldness of this scheme of the education of the world which Florence accepted in simple faith.” (Parents and Children, pp. 270-71)

Charlotte refers to the ideas of the Middle Ages and to Plato in discussing this point but also firming rests it in the Bible. She quotes Isaiah (Parents and Children, p. 272) to show that the plowman gets the knowledge he needs for his work from God and refers to David and Solomon to show that art also comes from Him:

“‘The Spirit of God came upon him and he prophesied among them,’ we are told of Saul, and we may believe that this is the history of every great invention and every great discovery of the secrets of Nature. ‘Then David gave to Solomon his son . . . . the pattern of all that he had by the spirit, of the courts of the house of the Lord.’ We have here a suggestion of the source of every conception of beauty to be expressed in forms of art.” (Parents and Children, pp. 271-72)

Finally, she makes clear that this instruction of the Holy Spirit is not just for adults but is the key to the education of every child:

“In the things of science, in the things of art, in the things of practical everyday life, his God doth instruct him and doth teach him, her God doth instruct her and doth teach her. Let this be the mother’s key to the whole of the education of each boy and each girl; not of her children; the Divine Spirit does not work with nouns of multitude, but with each single child.” (Parents and Children, p. 273)

What areas of life then are exempt from this divine instruction? There seems to be little if anything that is not so encompassed:

“And what subjects are under the direction of this Divine Teacher? The child’s faith and hope and charity––that we already knew; his temperance, justice, prudence and fortitude––that we might have guessed; his grammar, rhetoric, logic, music, astronomy, geometry, arithmetic––this we might have forgotten, if these Florentine teachers had not reminded us; his practical skill in the use of tools and instruments, from a knife and fork to a microscope, and in the sensible management of all the affairs of life––these also come from the Lord, which is wonderful in counsel and excellent in working. His God doth instruct him and doth teach him. Let the mother visualise the thought as an illuminated scroll about her newborn child, and let her never contemplate any kind of instruction for her child, except under the sense of the divine co-operation.” (Parents and Children, pp. 273-74)

Charlotte goes on to provide a reason for her belief:

“We must think, we must know, we must rejoice in and create the beautiful. And if all the burning thoughts that stir in the minds of men, all the beautiful conceptions they give birth to, are things apart from God, then we too must have a separate life, a life apart from God, a division of ourselves into secular and religious––discord and unrest.” (Parents and Children, p. 275)

What she is saying here is that all our life — our creativity and intellect in particular– is subject to God. If it were not so, we would have some part of life apart from Him and that to us would be “discord and unrest.” But if we recognize God the Holy Spirit as our teacher in all realms, then we have “harmony and peace” (p. 276). [A corollary to this idea which Charlotte points out is that we must keep our intellectual life subject to God; there is intellectual as well as moral sin.]

One last thought before we move on to the biblical evidence — when Charlotte says that the Holy Spirit is the Great Educator, this does not preclude some role for parents: “Our co-operation appears to be the indispensable condition of all the divine workings” (p. 274).

Looking at the Biblical Evidence

Having seen how Charlotte herself explained this principle, we must now ask what the Scriptures have to say on it. The key points I see that Charlotte made and which we are looking for in the Bible are:

  • That God the Holy Spirit is the Giver of wisdom and knowledge
  • That He does so in all areas of life — not just “religious” areas
  • That there really is no separation between sacred and secular

When we begin to ask what the Bible has to say about wisdom, we must first say that God Himself is the source of wisdom. Wisdom resides with Him (Prov. 8:22ff; Job 12:13), and it was through wisdom that God created the world (Prov. 3:19). The wisdom of the Son was remarked upon (Matt. 13:54; Mk. 6:2; Lk 2:40,52; I Cor. 1:30). The Spirit also is associated with wisdom (Isa. 11:2; Eph. 1:17).

God is the source of wisdom for us:

“If any of you lacks wisdom, let him ask God, who gives generously to all without reproach, and it will be given him.” (James 1:5; all biblical quotes are from the ESV unless otherwise noted)

“Who has put wisdom in the inward parts or given understanding to the mind? “(Job 38:36; cf. Prov. 2:6; Eccl. 2:26)

The story of King Solomon, who more than any other person is associated with wisdom, shows us clearly that wisdom is a gift of God (I Kgs. 4:29-30; cf. Deut. 34:9; Ezra 7:25; Acts 7:10).  His story also begins to show us the practical character of wisdom in that it allowed him to rule his kingdom well and to judge tricky judicial cases (I Kgs. 3:16-28).

Charlotte pointed out that God gives the farmer wisdom for his work (Isa. 28:26). So too God gives the wisdom needed to build a house (Prov. 24:3). Skill and craftsmanship of all kinds, particularly the art needed to make beautiful work, come from God (Exod. 31:2-6).  The wisdom to understand languages and literature (Dan.1:4, 17), to speak (I Cor. 1:5), and to “solve problems” (Dan. 5:11) is also given by God.

Though God is the source of wisdom, He may use means to convey that wisdom to people. Foremost among these is parental instruction (Prov. 4:11; 29:15).

Up to this point, we find that much of what Charlotte had to say is confirmed by the biblical text — God is the source of wisdom, and the wisdom that comes from Him is not just for “religious” matters but also applies to artistic skill, to practical knowledge, and  to many areas of intellectual understanding. The role of parents is also acknowledged by both.

On one (minor) point I do not think the Scriptures are as clear as Charlotte is. She speaks consistently of “the divine Spirit” (as opposed to the Father or the Son) as the source of knowledge and wisdom. I think it is a reasonable conclusion to say that it is the role of the Spirit to give wisdom, especially since Christ’s ascension, but I think it is also important to note that all three Persons of the Trinity are said to possess, even to be characterized by, wisdom and that quite often the Bible simply says that wisdom comes from God, without distinguishing clearly which Person is meant. On the flip side, in Charlotte’s defense, I will point out that the Bible speaks of “the Spirit of Wisdom” and that when an individual is said to be particularly wise, it may say he is “filled with the Spirit of wisdom” (as Joshua in Deut. 34:9 or Stephen in Acts 6-7). So too, Jesus tells his disciples that the “Spirit of truth” will reveal things to them:

“When the Spirit of truth comes, he will guide you into all the truth, for he will not speak on his own authority, but whatever he hears he will speak, and he will declare to you the things that are to come.” (John 16:13)

Thus far, we have seen that what Charlotte has to say lines up fairly well with the biblical evidence. There are two other, inter-related points, however, which do not seem to come into Charlotte’s thinking. Perhaps one of the best known verses about wisdom comes at the beginning of Proverbs:

“The fear of the Lord is the beginning of knowledge; fools despise wisdom and instruction.” (Prov. 1:7)

Wisdom in the Bible is intimately connected to godliness. It originates in godly fear, as in this verse from Proverbs, and its end goal is also to produce the good fruit of righteous deeds:

“And so, from the day we heard, we have not ceased to pray for you, asking that you may be filled with the knowledge of his will in all spiritual wisdom and understanding, so as to walk in a manner worthy of the Lord, fully pleasing to him: bearing fruit in every good work and increasing in the knowledge of God.” (Col. 1:9-10; cf. I Chr. 22:12)

Conversely, the Bible tells us that no fool — that is no irreligious man (Ps. 14:1) — can truly possess wisdom (Prov. 14:6).

The Bible makes it clear as well that there is “wisdom” that does not come from God. Moses, Solomon, and Daniel all pit their wisdom against that of non-believers (Exod. 7:8-13; I Kgs. 4:29-30; Dan. 5). Paul also makes clear that there is a “wisdom of the world”:

“Where is the one who is wise? Where is the scribe? Where is the debater of this age? Has not God made foolish the wisdom of the world?” (I Cor. 1:20)

Paul condemns such wisdom so strongly that one almost begins to think wisdom is not a thing to be desired. He goes on, however, to make clear that there is a godly wisdom:

“Yet among the mature we do impart wisdom, although it is not a wisdom of this age or of the rulers of this age, who are doomed to pass away. But we impart a secret and hidden wisdom of God, which God decreed before the ages for our glory.” (I Cor. 2:6-7)

James ties these two ideas together, saying that worldly wisdom leads to sinful desires and deeds:

“Who is wise and understanding among you? By his good conduct let him show his works in the meekness of wisdom.  But if you have bitter jealousy and selfish ambition in your hearts, do not boast and be false to the truth. This is not the wisdom that comes down from above, but is earthly, unspiritual, demonic. For where jealousy and selfish ambition exist, there will be disorder and every vile practice. But the wisdom from above is first pure, then peaceable, gentle, open to reason, full of mercy and good fruits, impartial and sincere.” (James 3:13-17)

How are we to take all this? Is there real wisdom which is imparted to non-believers? The Bible does make clear that practical knowledge — such as that the plowman needs to do his work or the skill of an artist — comes from God. If we see such knowledge and skill in a non-believer, I think we must assume that it too comes from God, though the person themselves may not acknowledge him.  In John 16:13 (above), Jesus calls the Spirit He is sending “the Sprit of Truth”; insofar as what is revealed to humanity is true (here I am thinking of the big new ideas that come to us at certain points in history, ideas like gravity or the movement of the planets) I think we may say that it comes from God though it may come through ungodly men.

On the other hand, the Bible also makes clear that the wisdom that is in God’s people, Daniel and Moses being prime examples, is greater than that which is in their worldly opponents. There is a level or kind of wisdom which seems to be impossible without true godliness. This certainly applies to what we might call spiritual wisdom, that which deals with spiritual matters, but I am not at all convinced that it does not also apply to more practical considerations.

If you will allow me a slight diversion, I will give you an example of what I mean — My oldest has been studying political philosophy this year.  I did a whole blog series some time back on evolution and creationism and did not come to firm conclusions, but as we read about all whom Darwin inspired — from Margaret Sanger to Nietzsche and Hitler —   it is hard not to think that Darwin’s theory of evolution which led to so many of the 20th centuries atrocities is just what James had in mind when he spoke of “earthly, unspiritual, demonic” wisdom which leads to “every vile practice.” [I do not think that Charlotte would disagree with this point. Though I don’t have quotes in front of me, I know she saw the need to test new theories and to see if they stand the test of time.]

Conclusions

The question before us is: Is Charlotte Mason’s 20th principle biblical? I am willing as this point to say yes, it is, but with one caveat that I think we need to think more about the relationship between godliness and wisdom. Charlotte propounds her ideas as applicable to all children — whether poor or rich, normal or delayed (if you’ll pardon the terms), but I think we need to ask as well whether those who are unsaved can truly grow in wisdom. Which will be a nice segway into what’s up next: that tricky second principle.

Until then

Nebby

 

 

Is it Biblical?: CM’s First Principle

tDear Reader,

Recently I did a post on what it means to be “pure CM.” My conclusion was that, while there are some good, practical reasons to make sure we adhere diligently to Charlotte Mason’s philosophy of education, the most significant argument its proponents make is that what Charlotte’s philosophy is derived from immutable divine law.

In evaluating whether this claim is true, I’d like to borrow a phrase we use in our church membership vows: “as being agreeable to, and founded upon, the Scriptures.” There is no philosophy of education as such laid out in Scripture — if it were so, we wouldn’t need Charlotte’s work. Nor do I think any mere human being is going to be right all the time. But are her ideas substantially “agreeable to” and “founded upon” the Scriptures? This is the question I would like to try to tackle.

The Question before us and How to Approach it

Before jumping in, let’s clarify a few terms. By divine law I mean all of God’s revelation to us which includes both His special revelation, which we find in the Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments, and His general revelation which is revealed to us in His Creation. The latter may at times be readily apparent but often requires more diligent effort to discern. Science, both experiment and experience, is one of the tools by which we do so.

My object is to judge whether Charlotte’s ideas are “founded upon and agreeable to the Scriptures.” To “be founded upon” the Scriptures is to find an absolute basis in the Scriptures. To be “agreeable to” is to be in line with biblical principles. Those ideas which Miss Mason takes from special revelation we should expect to be “founded in the Scriptures.” That is, they should be clearly discernable from the Scriptures. Those ideas which she discerns from general revelation, including from her own experience and the science of the time, should be “agreeable to the Scriptures;” there must be nothing in Scripture which contradicts them, but they may not themselves be directly discernable from Scripture.

There are two directions from which we may approach the question before us: we can start with the Bible and see if Charlotte Mason’s philosophy falls into place with what it has to say or we can start with what Charlotte has to say and see if her statements have a biblical basis. Since my goal at the moment is to evaluate Charlotte’s philosophy rather than to formulate a biblical philosophy of education, I am going to opt for the latter (I am hoping this will also narrow the field as it gives me specific principles to test). While Charlotte was quite a prolific writer, she herself sums up her philosophy in 20 principles. These would seem to be a logical starting place. There may be many other claims Charlotte makes, and we could spend volumes perhaps examining all she has to say, but if these 20 do not have a good, biblical basis then there is not much point looking beyond them.

Diving Right in: Principle 1

Charlotte Mason’s first principle seems simple enough: “Children are born persons.” Yet there is a lot implied in these four words and much has been written on them. I’d like to begin with how Charlotte herself explained this principle. Briefly:

“A child is a Person with the spiritual requirements and capabilities of a person.” (Charlotte Mason, Towards a Philosophy of Education, p. 18)

We see here the two aspects of Charlotte’s own definition: that children are spiritual creatures and that they share the capabilities of their elders.

The child is “a ‘living soul,’ a fully developed, full-grown soul” and as such “has one appetite, for the things of God; breathes one air, the breath, the Spirit of God; has one desire, for the knowledge of God; one only joy, in the face of God . . . The direct action of the soul is all Godward, with a reflex action towards men. The speech of the soul is prayer and praise, the right hand of the soul is faith, the light of the soul is love, the love of God shed abroad upon it” (Charlotte Mason, Home Education, pp. 342-343). Thus children are capable of relationship with their Creator apart from adult intervention:

“The most fatal way of despising the child falls under the third educational law of the Gospels; it is to overlook and make light of his natural relationship with Almighty God. . . . This mischief lies in that same foolish undervaluing of the children, in the notion that the child can have no spiritual life until it please his elders to kindle the flame.” (Charlotte Mason, Home Education, pp. 19-20)

And not just capable of such a relationship, the child has a desire for God:

“The fundamental idea is, that children are persons and are therefore moved by the same springs of conduct as their elders. Among these is the Desire of Knowledge, knowledge-hunger being natural to everybody. History, Geography . . . Science . . . Art . . . Ethics . . .  and Religion, for, like those men we heard of at the Front, we all ‘want God.'” (Charlotte Mason, Towards a Philosophy of Education., pp. 13-14)

While the child as spiritual being is paramount in her thinking, the abilities of the child are not limited to the spiritual realm. In the first volume of her Home Education series, Miss Mason speaks of children as sharers of the common human desires — for knowledge, society, and esteem — and affections — “joy and grief, love and resentment, benevolence, sympathy, fear, and much else” (Home Education, pp. 100-101). In her final volume, she expands upon the desire for knowledge:

“If we have not proved that a child is born a person with a mind as complete and as beautiful as his beautiful little body, we can at least show that he always has all the mind he requires for his occasions; that is, that his mind is the instrument of his education and that his education does not produce his mind. (Charlotte Mason, Towards a Philosophy of Education, p. 36)

The mind, she tells us, means curiosity, imagination, reason, and conscience (Towards a Philosophy of Education, pp. 36-37). All these are present from birth. This Charlotte demonstrates through experience and observation, noting all that a child learns in their first three years. In contradiction to ideas of her time, she argues that the child is not “‘a huge oyster'” to be molded (Towards a Philosophy of Education, p. 33) but:

“a person with a mind as complete and as beautiful as his beautiful little body, we can at least show that he always has all the mind he requires for his occasions; that is, that his mind is the instrument of his education and that his education does not produce his mind.” (Towards a Philosophy of Education, p. 36)

These then are the propositions wrapped up in Charlotte’s first principle:

  • Children are spiritual beings.
  • They are capable of relationship with their Creator and even have a God-ward desire.
  • They have mind, including reason, will, imagination, and creativity.
  • They have a conscience, an inborn sense of right and wrong.

Before looking at what the Bible has to say, I’d like to say a few words about what I didn’t find. I went into this with one phrase in my mind: “made in the image of God.” I have seen many writers use this phrase to explain Charlotte’s first principle. I have done so myself. And I can’t say, given the volume of her writings, that Charlotte herself does not use this phrase, but in the works I looked at she did not. She uses the language we associate with the image of God and even quotes Augustine who had quite a lot to say on the image of God, but her primary point does not seem to be that the child embodies the image of God. I don’t doubt that she would agree it is so, but her point here is not to show the divine in the child so much as to show the human in him, to show that he lacks nothing that is present in  his elders.

Children in the Bible

Having examined Charlotte’s first principle in her own words, the question now before us is: “Is this principle ‘founded on and agreeable to’ the Scriptures?” In order to say that this principle if biblical we would like to demonstrate that children are spiritual beings who are capable of a relationship with their Creator and that they have a mind which is capable of various functions including reason and discerning right from wrong (i.e. a conscience).  

The Hebrew Bible uses four main designations for children of various ages: there are babes and infants (from the Hebrew root ‘ll), little ones (Hebrew taph), children (Hebrew yeled), and youths (Hebrew na’ar). The various terms are not always clearly distinguished, but we can make some general observations about each.

Youths are teens and young adults, as in Isaiah 40:8-9 where “youths” and “young men” are used in parallel.  They are capable of real work as servants (Gen. 22:19; Ruth 2:15) and armor-bearers (Judg. 9:54; I Sam. 14:1). Joshua is a “young man” when he begins to serve as Moses’ assistant (Exod. 33:11). Those who spy out the land are “young men” as well (Josh. 6:23). David is a “youth” when he battles Goliath (I Sam. 17:33) and evinces a strong show of faith. One in youth is capable both of sin (Gen. 8:21; Ps. 25:7) and of faith (Ps. 71:5), though youth is also still a time of tenderness and inexperience (I Chr. 22:5, 29:1; II Chr. 13:7). The Bible does not give us a clear line at which this stage of life begins (they are not so concerned as we are to label teens, tweens, etc.) but I think it is significant that Jesus at age 12 stays in the Temple and argues with the teachers, showing His intellectual maturity at that age (Luke 12:41ff).

Moving down the scale, yeled “child” seems to be used fairly loosely, referring at times to a weaned child (Gen. 21:8; I Kgs. 17:21) and at others to what is clearly a baby (Exod. 2:6; 2 Sam. 12:16).  They are included in both the mourning (Ezra 10:1) and the rejoicing of the community (Neh. 12:43). A child is the object of training and discipline (Prov. 22:6; 23:13; 29:15) and is called to holiness:

“Even a child makes himself known by his acts, by whether his conduct is pure and upright.” (Prov. 20:11)

“Little ones,” from the Hebrew taph, seem to be those who need care. The root seems to mean “to trip” or “to take tiny steps” so “toddler” could be a good translation of this term. It often overlaps with yeled. “Little ones” are paired often with women and the elderly, and even with cattle (Gen. 34:29; 43:8; 45:19; 46:5; 47:24; 50:8, 21; Num. 32:24, 26; Judg. 18:21). Like women, they are not counted (Exod. 12:37). Even they, however, are included in the assembly of the people (Josh. 8:35; II Chr. 20:13) and are required to keep the Law (Deut. 31:12). The New Testament also indicates that children are included in the covenant community (Acts 2:39).

The Hebrew root ‘ll gives us a collection of words translated variously as “babes,” “infants,” and “sucklings.” What is clear of these children is that they are still nursing (which may have gone on for quite some time in that culture). Psalm 8 is a well-known passage which seems to speak of infants giving praise to God:

“From the mouths of babies and infants you ordained strength.” (Psalm 8:2; my translation)

When Jesus quotes this Psalm, it is praise which comes from the babies’ mouths:

“‘Out of the mouth of infants and nursing babies you have prepared praise’?“” (Matt. 21:16)

My own interpretation of this Psalm would be that, whether it refers to praise or to strength, that it is using the infants somewhat ironically. Just as Jesus would say that God could raise up sons of Abraham even from the stones — rocks being nothing like living sons–, the psalmist here says that strength could come even from infants, those known to be least strong. (If we understand the term to be “praise” the idea is the same for infants do not speak and “praise” as such cannot come form their mouths ordinarily.)

Nonetheless, the Bible makes it clear that God’s involvement with children is from birth and even before:

“For you formed my inward parts; you knitted me together in my mother’s womb.” (Ps. 139:13; cf. Jer. 1:5-7)

John the Baptist shows some evidence of faith even in the womb:

“And when Elizabeth heard the greeting of Mary, the baby leaped in her womb.” (Luke 1:41a)

Timothy too is said to have known the Scriptures “from infancy”:

“But as for you, continue in what you have learned and have firmly believed, knowing from whom you learned it  and how from childhood you have been acquainted with the sacred writings, which are able to make you wise for salvation through faith in Christ Jesus.” (2 Tim. 3:14-15) 

A number of New Testament passages seem to speak of the faith of children. Charlotte, in her exposition of what she calls the gospel principles of education, points to Matthew 19:14:

“But Jesus said, ‘Let the little children come to me and do not hinder them, for to such belongs the kingdom of heaven.'” (all biblical quotes are from the ESV unless otherwise noted)

She uses this verse to argue that we must not prevent children from coming to God. In its context, this verse is quite literal; the disciples were physically preventing children from approaching. 

Another well-known passage is found in the previous chapter:

“At that time the disciples came to Jesus, saying, ‘Who is the greatest in the kingdom of heaven?’  And calling to him a child, he put him in the midst of them and said, ‘Truly, I say to you, unless you turn and become like children, you will never enter the kingdom of heaven. Whoever humbles himself like this child is the greatest in the kingdom of heaven.

 ‘Whoever receives one such child in my name receives me, but whoever causes one of these little ones who believe in me to sin, it would be better for him to have a great millstone fastened around his neck and to be drowned in the depth of the sea.'” (Matt. 18:1-6)

In its context — the disciples are disputing over who of them is the greatest — Jesus praises the humility of children. Though I do not think it is the main purpose of the passage, I do think this passage tells us that children are capable faith. The second paragraph tells us something interesting too — children can sin. We don’t immediately think of the negative, but to have a relationship with God can be good or bad; we may be in relationship with Him or we may offend Him.

Matthew 11 seems to imply that children are capable of understanding the things of God:

“At that time Jesus declared, ‘I thank you, Father, Lord of heaven and earth, that you have hidden these things from the wise and understanding and revealed them to little children.'” (Matt.11:25; cf. Luke 10:21)

In Matthew’s gospel, this prayer of Jesus comes right after His condemnation of the unrepentant cities of Chorazin and Bethsaida; in Luke there is an intervening passage in which the 72 return rejoicing that they have cast out devils and Jesus tells them to rejoice instead that their names are written in the Book of Life. The context seems to indicate that these are not literal children but that those who are like children — the uneducated and perhaps the not-too-bright — will understand. As in Psalm 8, the use is ironic; God allows children to understand what those who should know more and better do not. Similarly, in Romans 2:20, Paul uses children in parallel to the blind and foolish who are in need of instruction and guidance. In other words, children are used in these passages not because of their knowledge but because of their habitual lack of knowledge.

What conclusions can we draw from all these Bible verses about children? Here’s what I see:

  • The Bible does not give us an age at which one goes from being a child to an adult but it does seem to distinguish between children — including children, babes and little ones–, and youths. The latter, while inexperienced, are essentially adults. Teens and young adults would likely be called youths.
  • Children (all those below teens) seem to be lumped together; the terms used for them are not clearly distinguished. They are assumed to be ignorant or foolish and in need of instruction and discipline.
  • Nonetheless, they are counted among God’s people and at important points (such a covenant renewal ceremonies) are included in the assembly of God’s people.
  • Children are also called to follow the Law and to holiness. They can also sin.

Conclusions

I hope I have established here a basic format which I can follow in future posts. The claim of Charlotte Mason’s adherents is that her philosophy is worth following and preserving because it is based on God’s immutable word; these posts are my attempt to see if this claim holds up. My goal then is to examine Miss Mason’s ideas, and in particular her 20 Principles as the most concise and accurate embodiment of those ideas, to see if they are “founded on and agreeable to the Scriptures.”

In this post I have presented Charlotte’s first principle, looked at how she herself explained it, and then presented Bible verses which seem to speak to the same question, in this case the nature and abilities of children. My children and husband watch a lot of Mythbusters in which an idea or claim is tested to see if it holds up; their always end by saying whether a myth has been confirmed, busted, or something in between, so I’d like to follow  their lead and do the same for CM’s principles.

In this case, when she said “Children are born persons,” Charlotte Mason was claiming that they are spiritual beings capable of relationship with God and with all the capabilities of a mind including, among others, reason and conscience. In the Bible verses we looked at we saw that children are included among the community of God’s people, that they can sin, that they are held to the Law, and that they are capable of faith. I am stamping this principle CONFIRMED. The Bible does not speak specifically to some of the finer points about whether children are creative or how much they can reason but the biggest claims Charlotte makes in her first principle are clearly shown in the Scriptures.

Until next time,

Nebby

 

On Voting for Stupid People

Dear Reader,

I’ve been on vacation and haven’t had time to write a lot so I thought I’d just share a quote from one of the books I’ve been reading. Draw your own conclusions.

“Both the Bible and common sense discourage us from choosing people who are not smart to rule over us.” (J.K. Wall Messiah the Prince Revisited, p. 121)

Nebby

Psalm Study: Psalm 13

Dear Reader,

Our last psalm study for this school year was on Psalm 13. For some background on psalm study and how and why we do it, see this post.

You can find my translation of Psalm 13 here (opens a Google doc).

As usual, you should begin by giving your children the poem and some colored pencils and having them sit down with it for 10 minutes or so to see what they can find.

I like to begin our discussions by just asking them what they have noticed about the psalm. Often they will cover everything on my agenda or will have thought of things I didn’t think to ask.

My youngest observed that it was a lament psalm and gave us her division of the lines. There was some dispute over how the lines match up. We discussed whether lines 1,2 and 3 make one unit or if 3 should go with 4 and 5. Remember that the line divisions you see are my own. You are free to disagree with them.

It was clear to all of us though that lines 1-5 are one section dominated by “how long.” My younger son noted that the “how long” is implied in line 4. This is a good opportunity to point out that parallelism need not be complete. Some elements can be left out in some lines. Often they are balanced by the addition of other elements, maybe something like an added prepositional phrase. Even though the parallelism is pretty obvious in this psalm and not at all obscure, the poet still keeps things interesting by not just repeating everything.

We then turned our attention to the second half of the psalm, lines 6-12. We noted that lines 6-9 talk about bad things happening while lines 10-12 essentially say “I will rejoice.”

Notice that I began line six with “Look!” One of my kids questioned why there was an exclamation point. This is editorial license on my part since the Hebrew has no punctuation (every translation is an interpretation and I say this by way of explanation but stand by my translation). I explained that my understanding of this psalm is that as the psalmist turns to the second half he is calling on the Lord to see his problems. The “look” is not literal in the sense of asking God to see (though of course he wants God to see his distress too) but is a call for attention.

My older daughter talked about who does what in this psalm. We noted that there is a sequence of “Lord, I, enemy” in the first 5 lines and then “Lord, enemy, me” in the second half. It is always good to ask what each character does. The enemies in this psalm rejoice, say and rise. The Lord recognizes, forgets, hides, gives light and answers (or is asked to do so). And I, the psalmist that is, takes pain/grief and will sing and rejoice. Also, and perhaps most importantly, he has trusted. The rejoicing is in the future but trust is past tense.

I also pointed out to them the word “loving-kindness” in line 10. It is a long word in English but translates a short one in Hebrew: hesed. This word refers to God’s covenant love for His people. When the psalmist uses it, he is reminding God of His covenant with His people and giving Him a reason to save.

Because my kids are pros, I didn’t have to ask many questions beyond “what did you see?” But if you’d like some, here you go:

  1. What sets of parallel lines do you see in this psalm?
  2. How does this psalm divide up? Do you see any big sections?
  3. What kind of psalm is this? Is it about troubles (lament), does it give advice (wisdom), is it praising and rejoicing? What’s the mood? How does the psalmist feel?
  4. Who is in this psalm? What characters are there? What does each do?
  5. Are the psalmist’s problems solved by the end?
  6. Why does the psalmist say God should help him? What reasons does he give? This is a good place to insert that bit about “loving-kindness.”

Happy psalming! Let me know what you find if you study this psalm.

Nebby

Psalm Study: Psalm 12

Dear Reader,

This is the latest in my chronicle of our psalm studies. For an introduction of sorts see this post on Psalm 8.

Click here (opens a Google doc) for my translation and arrangement of Psalm 12.  I have given some questions on the second page but these are mainly for you to use in directly your conversation after you have all had a chance to analyze the psalm on your own.

The first step, as always, is to sit down with your colored pencils and mark up the psalm. Look for repeated words and ideas. Look for contrasts. Look for parallel lines. Really, whatever you notice is fine. This is a “no wrong answers” sort of exercise.

After about 10 minutes, call your kids back together and ask them what they have noticed. My well-practiced kids started with which lines they thought were parallel. We agreed that this psalm has lots of pairs of parallel lines — 3&4, 5&6, etc. There was some dispute about what to do with lines 9 through 11. Notice that there are an odd number of lines here as I have divided up the psalm. We agreed that this is unsettling in an otherwise so orderly psalm. But remember that these line divisions are arbitrary (as are the ones in your Bible). If I had divided line 9 into two parts: “From the plunder of the poor” and “from the cry of the needy” the parallelism would have worked out much better. Lesson 1: don’t be afraid to disagree with how things are laid out. Verse divisions were added later and even then they do not always correspond to where a sentence or thought should end. Feel free to play around with them.

We did have one contrary opinion. My oldest thought that lines 2 and 17 were really parallel to each other. Note that they both end with “sons of men.” They also express similar ideas. I introduced the term “bracketing” to describe what is going on here. Often a psalm will have similar ideas, perhaps even exact repetition near the beginning and end. These verses function as bookends to the psalm. Note that understanding these lines this way need not be in contradiction to the parallelism we saw. Both things can be true.

My younger son noted that there is a lot in this psalm about people saying things and the mouth area. He couldn’t say anything at that time about why he thought that was so but I said we’d get back to it in a bit.

We then proceeded with the questions on page 2. We’d already covered “what did you notice?” so we went on to question #2: “What kind of Psalm is this?” One child said “praise” but her answer was rejected in favor of “a cry for help.” I told them this is usually termed a “psalm of lament” (they really should have known that word though, pros that they are). We noted that the psalm ends with the wicked and that there are “ongoing troubles” (younger son’s words). The tone, they said, is  one of sorrow or lament (now they know the word).

Question 3 asks what the wicked do in this psalm and how they are described. Our answers: worthless, “sons of men.” My oldest supplied the answer his brother couldn’t earlier: “sons of men” shows their connection with Adam (see the footnote; the word is the same: adam). As Adam sinned so they follow in his footsteps. Of course this phrase can be used various ways in the Bible but I think the connection to Adam and his sin is intentional here (see question 7). When asked what specifically the wicked do, what their sons are, they said talking too much, flattering, being vain. We discussed the “walking about” in line 16. Though it sounds Australian a good translation in English might be “prowling.”

What does the Lord do? He speaks, will save and guard the poor and needy, and cuts off lips (they liked the gore this implies though I don’t think it’s literal). We noted again that what the Lord does is in the future — He will save and guard. Salvation has not come yet in this psalm. We also compared the Lord’s speaking and that of the wicked (see question 6). The Lord’s words are pure and firm. God created through speech. The wicked’s words are smooth and deceitful.

Question 5 gets at two Hebrew idioms. It took them a minute to get it but to speak “great things” is to boast, i.e. they speak great thimgs of themselves. Smooth speech is flattering (we have to define that for my youngest). It is smooth because it says what people want to hear.

Now it’s your turn — what do you see in Psalm 12?

Nebby

 

Psalm Study: Psalm 11

Dear Reader,

For some background on why and how we do psalm study see this post on Psalm 8.

For this week’s psalm study, I did something a little bit different and gave some specific questions. You can find my translation of Psalm 11 with the study questions here (opens a Google doc).

To begin I gave each of my kids a copy of the psalm and the questions, a pencil and about 10 minutes to see what they could do with it. After that time, we came back together and went through the questions one by one.

Here again are the question with our answers:

-Read through the psalm. What kind of psalm is it? (Some choices include: praise, lament, thanksgiving, royal, wisdom) After some discussion we agreed that the psalmist is not mainly giving praise but is asking for help. Therefore we called this a lament psalm. We noted that help has not come in the psalm; he is only expressing confidence that it will, which is usual for laments.

-How would you divide up this psalm? Look for sets of parallel lines and mark them. There were some obvious sets in this psalm which we all agreed on: lines 4,5, and 6; 9 and 10; 11 and 12. One child thought lines 2 and 3 should be combined making a pair with line 1. They weren’t all convinced but I put 7 and 8 together. There was some dispute over whether 14 went with 13 or 15 and 16. Personally, I like starting the psalm with 2 triads (1,2 and 3; and 4,5, and 6) and then putting all the rest of the lines in pairs. Not all psalms work out so nicely, but this one can.

-Below are lines 4-6. Put boxes around the parts that go together (i.e. “the wicked” in the first line corresponds to “they” in the second line so they would go together in one box).

For behold the wicked bend    a bow;

                                They    fix         their arrow upon the string

                                         To shoot                                 in secret    the upright of heart.

There was a little confusion over what I was asking for here. I am going to add a picture of how I did it below so you can see what I had in mind and hopefully guide your children. You can slide in a little grammar lesson here too. The verbs line up very nicely and go in one box. Lines 4 and 5 have subjects– “the wicked” and “they” — and complements — “a bow” and “their arrow” — which go together. Line 4 has an added bit at the beginning, but lines 5 and 6 both have prepositional phrases after the verb. Finally, line 6, which doesn’t have a subject, has something added at the end which actually has two parts itself — “the upright” and “of heart.”

What do you notice about the length of the lines? Once you have made the boxes, hopefully you will see that each line really has 4 parts. Line 4 has: behold, subject, verb, complement. Line 5 has subject, verb, complement, prepositional phrase. And Line 6 had verb, prepositional phrase and a 2-part added but which is actually a complement and a prepositional phrase describing it.

Do we have an exact parallelism here? Or is there a progression? (Hint: think about the verbs.)

No. If you act out the verbs, you will see that the lines take us through the steps in drawing and shooting a bow. As the wicked bends his bow, fixes the arrow and shoots, the suspense builds . . .

What does the last line add to the meaning? And then in the last line we find that he is not just out hunting, he is hunting in secret! It’s an ambush! And the target is not an animal, but people!!

-Look through the psalm again and mark any repeated words. What do you notice? You may note different things here. Some we found are: wicked, LORD and righteous/righteousness/upright. If you have a child like one of mine, you may need to instruct them that words like “the” and “in” are not worth marking even though they occur frequently.

-Who sees whom in this psalm? God sees man and the upright will see God.

-Look at lines 13-14 again:

“The LORD the righteous examines and the wicked and the lover of violence his soul hates.”

Remember that there is no punctuation in the Hebrew. Are there different way you could divide up these lines?  Which do you think it best? This might be  a little bit trickier. If they have trouble getting started, remind them that lines 4-6 were nicely balanced, each has the same number of elements so they appear the same length. If you look at my translation of the Psalm, what do you notice? Line 13 is much shorter than line 14. How could I have done it differently so that the lines would be more even? Your answer should be that “and the wicked” could go with what comes before. How does this change the meaning? If the wicked goes in line 14, then the LORD is examining the righteous but hating the wicked. If we put it with line 13, then He examines both righteous and wicked and hated the wicked (aka the lover of violence). Go on to the next question, to see why this might be important . . .

What do you think this psalm is about? There seem to be two parts: the problem in lines 1-8 and the solution in lines 9-18. Describe the scene in the latter half. How do you see it?

If your kids can’t picture it, ask them what God is doing in this psalm. Is He fighting? Standing? Sitting? He is sitting on His throne. His throne is the place of judgment. If we take the wicked with line 13, as discussed above, then He is judging the righteous and the wicked. He looks at both of them and then passes judgment on the wicked. What about the righteous? What happens to them? They see the face of God. This might be a good time to point out that faces seem prominent in this psalm. Earlier we had eyes and eyelids, now we have faces. A good question to ask whenever you read the Bible is: What other passages does this remind me of? For me this one is the parable of the sheep and the goats when God judges and puts the sheep on His right and the goats on His left. One goes off to eternal punishment and the other lives with God forever.

FullSizeRender

Here you can see how I did the boxes around parallel the sections of lines 4-6.

Next time: Psalm 12

Nebby

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