Living Books: 1900-WWI

Dear Reader,

This school year we are tackling the 1900s and 2000s. Kind of a big task since last year we only got through about 1860-1900. Obviously, we will not be spending as much time on the World Wars as we did on the Civil War. My main focus is on American history but for my oldest (11th grader) I am trying to incorporate more international events. The first chunk we took was  from the turn of the century to World War I. Though my kids are all in middle or high school this year, there may be some things below that work for elementary too. I am not above using an easy book if it is a good book or gives us what we need at the time. You can find all my lists of living books here.

Living Books on 1900-WWI

I greatly simplified our spine this year. Last year we got pretty bogged down in big thick spines. This year I want to spend more of our “together time” on Bible so I chose a pretty simple spine. Here it is:

1900s-1

I got this series of books from a library book sale some years ago. We actually used it many moons ago when we first did the 1900s. My kids were much younger then so you can see that it is not tough reading. Honestly, it is probably upper elementary level, even 3rd-5th grade. Yet I am using it with my 6th through 11th graders. Why? Part of the answer is in what I want a spine to do — it is an introduction, a fly-over of the period we are studying. My kids will each get more detail and more challenging reading and narration in their individual work. But the spine book makes sure that we are not missing major events. (Part of it is also a lack of good spines I can find on this period; many of the ones we have used in the past are older and actually stop before 1900.) This series may not look on the surface like living books, and perhaps it is not. But it is actually fairly well-written and I am happy enough with the content. It has some of the look of the sort of modern “busy” book that annoys the sock off of me, but it keeps the side blurbs to a minimum and the text itself is reasonably interesting.

There are a lot of topics one can cover for this period; a lot of social things — immigration, women’s rights, etc. — were going on. Since we are not spending too long on anything this year, I got each child a more comprehensive book. If you are looking for things on smaller topics, you can also check out some of my posts from last year on the end of the 1800s. Many of the issues span the century divide and were covered, at least in part, last year (immigration, for example, is one we touched on last year).

I had my 6th grader read two shorter books:

Jean Fritz is a favorite author. Her books vary in length. Each of these is probably at a 4th-6th grade level, a longer chapter book basically.

My 7th grader read Albert Marrin’s Spanish American War:

1900-4

I like Marrin because he tends to cover a lot of ground even in a book that is ostensibly on one narrow subject. This one might not have had the range of some of his but it was still good. Usually, I use Marrin’s books in  high school but this one didn’t seem too tough.

My 10th grader also read a Marrin book:

1900-7

Theodore Roosevelt and the Rise of Modern America is more typical of a Marrin book in that it gives the flavor or an era. She seemed to enjoy many of the stories and learned interesting tidbits about TR.

My 11th grader focused on the Boxer Rebellion in China. I looked at two books on this topic, The Boxer Rebellion by Diana Preston and The Boxer Rebellion and the Great Game in China by David Silbey. Though Preston’s book looked good, I opted for Silbey’s as it was shorter and fit better into our schedule.

One more book on China I looked at was China’s Long March by Jean Fritz (again):

1900-6

In the end I chose not to use this book (yet?) because it is really more about the 1930s. I am mentioning it here in case you are looking for more on China and also because I am not sure if we will have time to get to it later.

Since our spine isn’t long, I read a few other books aloud to my kids.

For brief intros to various topics I love the Cornerstones of Freedom series. Be sure to get the older editions which all begin The Story of . . . The newer ones are not living books(IMO)!

Arctic exploration was also a topic at this time:

Both of these are books we have read when my kids were littler too. Curlee’s Into the Ice is an overview of Arctic exploration. Black Whiteness is about Admiral Byrd in the Antarctic.  It is a more poetic and heart-wrenching account. (It is also set in the 1930s but I included it here anyway.)

Lastly, here are some books I looked at but didn’t end up using:

Werstien is another favorite author (look for him in my WWI booklist coming soon!). This particular volume is more of a pictorial history though there is an introduction which one could read. It might be a good choice for the boy who is into the specifics of military things. Rebel in Petticoats is about the move for women’s rights. It looked good but I couldn’t find time for it.

Until next time–

Nebby

 

Samples of Oral Narrations

Dear Reader,

As a follow up to this recent post on written narrations, I am attempting to share some of my children’s oral narrations. They are audio files in a drop box which you can find here (hopefully this works!). I will add a few more as I get them. It is good to see examples of both; oral narrations tend to be much more complete than written ones, especially in the younger years. If you have your kids’ narrations, in either form, feel free to link to them in the comments or send them to me and I’ll post them so we can all see what narrations looks and sounds like. Share the bad ones too! The goal is not to show off or make others feel their kids’ efforts aren’t up to snuff but to give an accurate picture of what a given age child may do.

Nebby

Sample Narrations

Dear Reader,

One big question Charlotte Mason homeschoolers seem to have is “What should a xx grade narration look like?” I thought I would share some of my kids’ narrations and I invite you to do the same. Send them to me and I’ll post them. Put them in your blog and post a link. Oral and written narrations from the same child tend to be very different; it is much easier to say a lot than to write a lot so ideally, I’d like to post my kids’ oral narrations as well. Anybody know how I can do that?

To start us off, here are two written narrations from my brand new 6th grader (sorry — I know the picture quality is bad but I put it in so you can get a sense of the handwriting):

NarrationG2

Translation:

“Teddy Rosevelt got married and went to law school. He got really sick and went to a spa for the summer. Then he went to the Wild West to get a buffalo before they were all gone. It took him a couple monthes, but he got one. THE END.”

Obviously, I am giving you what she wrote without editing. That’s part of the point — let’s see what kids are really doing. Don’t just give me their best examples! Let’s see the worst too. Her oral narrations are much longer and more detailed. And the copywork she did on the same day had beautiful, well-spaced handwriting. That has not carried over into narrations yet.

A slightly better example:

narrationG1

Translation:

“the Cuthberts lived at Green Gables

Mrs. Rachel saw Matthew Cuthbert going off in his carriage, in a suit, and she went over after tea to see why, and Marilla Cuthbert said it was because he was going to pick up an orphan. Mrs. Rachel wondered why Merilla did not tell her. then Marilla said that they had thought about it all winter and decided to get one. It was a boy of ten or eleven, old enough to be usefull, but young enough to be trained up right. Mrs. Rachel told her about some horror stories about orphans being adopted. then Mrs. Rachel went up the street to spread the news. THE END”

I had previously posted some examples of narration from 9th grade and 10th grade. Here’s one from my now 11th grader (16yo):

“The story started out with a lieutenant named Roger Keyes going out for a walk with some men. He had been trying to capture a fort for a while, so he decided to go look at it from a different side. When he approached it he found it to be deserted with the doors wide open. He and his men went in and realizing they did not have enough men to man the fort, they detonated all the ammunition in the fort, making it useless.

That was part of the Boxer Rebellion. It took place in China cause the Chinese were unhappy.”
He types up and e-mails me narrations. It’s rather short for one of his efforts. It was just the introduction to a book.
And the 10 grader (14yo):
Translation:
      “There was a scientist named Henry Cavindish. He hated people. He wouldn’t even see his servants at all during the day. He did experiments and discovered hydrochloric acid. Hydrochloric acid reacts with metal and when the acid touches metal the metal releases its hydrogen.
      Hydrogen is the lightest element (that was discovered then. Some scientists made a system where the weight of hydrogen was 1 and all other elements were relative to that. Oxygen was 12 and mercury was 200. Now there is a system where carbon is 12 and the other elements are given weights relative to that.
      A minister named Joseph Priestly discovered that if you put hydrogen dioxide in a drink, it becomes fizzy.
      Oxygen is an element that is abundant. Oxygen makes other chemicals burn better.
      Nitrogen is an element used in explosives. It explodes easily. It is also used in fertilizer. Plants suck it from the soil, but not from the air. It is good to also plant something like peanuts, which can pull nitrogen from the air and put it back in the soil.
      One scientist invented an abbreviation system for the elements.  Most elements start with their first letter like Oxygen (O), Hydrogen (H), and Nitrogen (N). Some start with the first two letters like Cobalt (Co). Some use letters from their Latin name like Gold (Au) and Silver (Ag).
Okay– it’s your turn now! Share your narrations with a link in the comments or send them to me and I’ll add them
Nebby

 

Education and Sanctification

Dear Reader,

I touched on this recently but thought it deserved a post of its own. To cut right to the chase, my big idea is this: Education is a part of Sanctification.

I want to be very clear first on what I am not saying: I am not saying that education in any way saves us. I am not saying that if we just teach people the right things or in the right ways they will be saved.

Sanctification is for people who are already saved. First comes justification, then sanctification by which those who have been saved are made more and more righteous. To be sanctified is to be made holy and to be holy is to be set apart for God. So when the Holy Spirit — and it is His work — sanctifies us, He makes us more and more as God wants us to be, indeed more and more as God is.

Education is also the work of the Holy Spirit. This is an idea I have gotten from Charlotte Mason. In her philosophy of education, the Holy Spirit is the Great Educator; it is He who gives all knowledge and wisdom and who is the source of all truth.

If both these works, then, are of the Holy Spirit, it is not too large a leap to say that the one is a subset of the other. And that is what my point in this post is — Education is a part of Sanctification. Both are the work of the Holy Spirit and the one is subsumed under the other.

Some Bible verses which I think add to my point:

 Do not be conformed to this world, but be transformed by the renewal of your mind, that by testing you may discern what is the will of God, what is good and acceptable and perfect.” (Romans 12:2; ESV)

“If any of you lacks wisdom, let him ask God, who gives generously to all without reproach, and it will be given him.” (James 1:5)

“For the Lord gives wisdom;
    from his mouth come knowledge and understanding.” (Proverbs 2:6)

“Daniel answered and said:

“Blessed be the name of God forever and ever,
    to whom belong wisdom and might.” (Daniel 2:20)

This idea is a very Puritan one. Though Charlotte Mason was a member of the Church of England, she and the Puritans seem to have had some overlap in their understanding of the role of education. Education was so important to the Puritans that they demanded and educated clergy and early on established Harvard College. The Covenanters (to which my own denomination traces its roots) in the young United States were willing to break laws to teach slaves to read; they could not conceive of growth in Christianity without literacy (Joseph S. Moore, Founding Sins, p.??).

But I do not think the place of education is only to allow us to read our Bibles. That is certainly part of it but education is not merely the servant of our sanctification. It goes beyond that.

Both Charlotte Mason and John Calvin said that all truth is God’s truth. It is not merely our religious or Bible knowledge which comes from God, but all knowledge and wisdom, though it may at times comes through worldly or non-Christian sources. As God used the Persian king Cyrus to restore His people and His temple, so He can and does use non-believers to bring truth to mankind.

When man in Adam fell, his whole nature was corrupted. So in Christ our whole nature is, gradually in this life, restored. Part of this is our intellect. Of course many non-Christians are quite intelligent and highly educated (I am related to quite a few of these). Nonetheless, I maintain that education, rightly done, should add to our sanctification. When we learn about God’s creation, including human beings, we bring glory to Him. And as we grow in wisdom, we become more like Him, which is after all what sanctification is all about.

Nebby

CM and the Not Normal Child

Dear Reader,

Is it okay to stray from Charlotte Mason’s methods if your child is struggling with spelling or reading or –?? This is a question which seems to come up a lot.

Charlotte Mason’s approach to education was designed for the “normal” child. This is apparent from her 11th principle:

“But we, believing that the normal child has powers of mind which fit him to deal with all knowledge proper to him, give him a full and generous curriculum . . . ” (“Charlotte Mason’s 20 Principles,” from Ambleside Online)

This is in sharp contrast to the work of her contemporary, Maria Montessori, whose approach to education was designed initially for “backwards” children and was later applied and extended to all children. Charlotte began with “normal” children. It should be noted that she included in this category many who, in her time, were not considered “normal.” It was though that the poor and illegitimate were inherently unable to learn. Charlotte extended the definition of normal for her time and made it a much more inclusive category.

Though we don’t today exclude children based on their parentage (or lack thereof) there is no denying that many have intellectual challenges. They simply can’t learn as well as others or perhaps just learn in very different ways. Can a Charlotte Mason education work for these children? The short answer is yes. The slightly longer answer is yes, but one may at times need to consider additions or modifications. The longer still answer is to consider the following:

  • Make sure your definition of normal is broad enough. Everybody has some areas they are weak in and our society loves its labels. Don’t let a label rule your child’s life and don’t go in assuming the worst. As Charlotte herself says, (paraphrasing from volume 6 here) kids will live down to low expectations.
  • Don’t throw the baby out with the bathwater. Charlotte’s philosophy combines a certain view of children with a certain view of how they learn. If the How they learn part doesn’t seem to be working in one or more areas, still consider her overall view of children. Every child is, as CM’s first principle says, a “born person.” If anything, we need to remember this most for the kids our society labels.
  • Whether your child has delays or not, a CM education is a long-haul sort of thing. Even with “normal” kids results will often not be seen for years. Be patient with the system. All those living books and narrations will pay off in the end.
  • Often it is the kids with some sort of issues who most need the real things a CM education uses — the living books and art and music.
  • If after considering all the above, your still feel there are areas which are just not working for your child, it is okay to adapt or make additions. It does not make you a bad homeschool parent . It does not make you not truly CM (feel free to ignore what people on message boards may tell you on this). Look back at principle 11 — Charlotte said that this was for “normal” kids but some are not normal. Some might need those tweaks.

I’m sure there are other resources out there but the one I know of is the blog Aut2Home in Carolina. It chronicles one mom’s CM journey with her autistic daughter. Read it. See that Charlotte Mason’s approach can work for your not-quite-normal kid.

Nebby

Homeschool Plans: 2016-2017

Dear Reader,

I had posted on our high school plans for the four years, but I realized I never did anything on what we are doing this year. In 2016-17 I will have two in high school — 10th and 11th grades — and two in middle school — 6th and 7th.

Stuff we do together

We still have things we do together; this is part of our day I am loathe to give up. I don’t know if the kids like it, but I do. We have pared down our “together work” of the last year or so though. Last year we went from every day to 3 days a week. We’re going to keep to that schedule this year, but I am making one more big change. History has always been the heart of our homeschool and the big thing we do together. We are still going to read our history spine together but I picked a much simpler, quicker spine and I want to spend considerable time on Bible study too. I came to the realization that adults I know, who I feel shoud know better, don’t turn to the Bible when they should. I want my kids to get used to dealing with the Bible. They all do (or should do) daily BIble reading on their own but this is something more and different. I’ll try to post exactly what we are doing and how it is going as the year progresses. (Feel free to remind me in a month or two if I haven’t said anything.) We will also continue to do psalm studies together occasionally.

The other subjects we will do together are history, Shakespeare, and geography. The bulk of their history reading is done on their own but I like to read a general “spine” book together to give us an overview of the period we are studying. It helps to make sure we don’t miss any key events. They then read on their own books at their own level and on more specific topics. This year we are doing 20th century history. The focus for the younger three is on American history but I plan to give my oldest books on international events so he gets a broader view.

The other subjects we do together will alternate. I began ding geography through maps last year and we will continue that. I’m contemplating getting through two Shakespeare plays this year, Julius Caesar and something more light such as The Taming of the Shrew.

Middle School

As I said, history is the cornerstone of what we do. Our approach is simple: read and narrate, read and narrate. Using a spine book together for an overview allows us to focus on specific topics in their individual reading. I rely heavily on the TruthQuest guides to find books, as well as just looking at what our library system has and checking for favorite authors. I blog about what books we used after each section. Look for the living books tab up top to find all our booklists.

In the past I have given my younger two assigned Bible readings but I am going to see if they can stay on track on their own this year and let the at least start out by picking what they want to read.

Since my older two have advanced to high school, I have decided I really wish we had done less formal science when they were younger and focused more on living books and nature study. We have been quite slack on formal nature study so I’d like to get back into that this year. In addition, my 7th grader will be reading The Wonderbook of Chemistry and Joe’s Body. My 6th grader has some science combined with her math — she is doing Life of Fred Pre-Algebra with Physics and Life of Fred Pre-Algebra with Biology. She is also going to read The Storybook of Science. I would like both of them to do some of this aloud with me, that is with them reading aloud to me. Three of my four kids had speech delays when they were little and we really need to work on enunciation.

My 7th’s grader’s math will be Life of Fred Pre-Algebra with Economics. I am also going to have him read Richard Maybury’s What Ever Happened to Penny Candy? I feel I should say, though, that I am not a fan of Maybury’s. I know a lot of homeschoolers use him and I am okay with this first of his books but I really regret letting my oldest read Whatever Happened to Justice? Maybury has a definite viewpoint and it is not mine. Before you get into his books, I’d recommend looking into what he believes. You can see my specific thoughts on that here.

For language arts this year I am trying to go pure CM with these two. In the past we have always done a spelling curriculum too and I’d like to get away from that. We will be doing copywork and prepared dictation from Spelling Wisdom Book 3.

Both kids have asked for a foreign language so I set them both up with DuoLingo online. One chose German and the other Swedish.

At various points when there is room in their schedules they will read other books. My 6th grader will start with Anne of Green Gables.

There are a few subjects the three of us will do together without the high schoolers. These include poetry, artist and music study, and church history. These will rotate so only one is done per day. All my kids have an instrument and take lessons.

High School

History for high school is the same as for the middle schoolers, just with harder books. Bible reading they are on their own for as well. I will give them theology (a term I am using very broadly) books to read as well as they have slots in their schedules. My 11th grader is starting with John Calvin’s Golden Booklet of the True Christian Life and Frank Leahy’s The Hand of God.

My oldest will be taking physics labs at a local coop every other week. He will do the readings from the textbook they use, but I am also including some living books. I will post on those another time. My 10th grader will be doing chemistry using Life of Fred Chemistry, a selection of living books (see this post), and Landry labs two day intensive.

My 10th grader will do civics using The Everything US Government Book and Lessons for the Young Economist (again a lot of this is in my high school post). My 11th grader asked for a course on political science and so I am developing one for him. I will post on that in the future as well.

My oldest takes Latin with a tutor using The Cambridge Latin Course. My 10th grader is going to try Spanish 1 with Classes by Beth Plus, an online class.

I am going to try something a little different for English this year. Both high schoolers will be reading a lovely little writing book I found and trying their hand at some essay writing. This will alternate with “Movies as Literature” which I am creating based on Horner’s book Meaning at the Movies (see my review here).

I am going to have them both read Francis Schaeffer’s How Shall We Then Live and watch the videos of it as well. Having read the book, I decided it’s a bit dense and that the reinforcement of doing both would be good.

My daughter is aiming for art school so she has a lot in that department. She takes drawing classes with a private instructor and will do a digital photography class this fall. She is also going to read Leland Ryken’s Liberated Imagination on Christianity and the arts (my review here). Schaeffer’s book also has a lot to say on art.

I am trying something different for some of their narrations; it is sort of half narration, half commonplace book. For Schaeffer and Horner and Ryken at least they will do a page in a notebook (just a plain one, not special pages) after each reading in which they sum up what points they think the author is making, copy a favorite quote and write and questions, comments or disagreements they have.

For math my son is continuing to work through Life of Fred Calculus and my daughter is trying Teaching Textbooks Algebra 2.

Nebby

Book Review: Minds More Awake

Dear Reader,

Recently Anne E. White’s book, Minds More Awake: The Vision of Charlotte Mason, was free for a few days in the Kindle edition. Perhaps you, like I, saw it on various CM groups and snagged a copy.

I have read mine now and wanted to share with you my thoughts on it. As with many of my book reviews, this is really more of a “book response.” What I am going to give you are my own impressions and thoughts as I read this relatively short volume.

White’s title implies that she is going to present us with something overarching – “The Vision of Charlotte Mason.” If this is indeed her aim, I applaud the effort. Charlotte herself wrote six thick volumes; that is a lot to take in all at once and much of it is theory more than practical how-tos. As White makes clear, there is not just one way to do a CM education. She uses an analogy from the kitchen, saying that Charlotte’s approach was not “a big fat cookbook” with all the steps spelled out (Kindle loc. 94). The heart of CM is not a to-do list but the philosophy behind it. Summing up this philosophy, then, is a reasonable and noble goal.

My main issue with Minds More Awake is simply that I don’t see the main thrust of Charlotte’s “Vision” as White does. I have been thinking about this so much, and wrestling with it, that I went ahead and wrote another post recently on what I think the key to Charlotte Mason’s philosophy is. You can read that here.

There is a lot in Charlotte’s writings. White comes away with one point; I get another; you might find still another idea that captivates you. This is actually the test of a good living book – that we can all come away with different ideas. What I have to say may seem critical because I do come away with different ideas but I am not sure I can in the end say that my take on it all is closer to Charlotte’s ideas than White’s is. I hope to be able to meet Miss Mason some day and ask her😉

What, for White, is the vision of Charlotte Mason? She begins and ends her discussion with the Way of the Will. When I first read Charlotte’s talk of “the Way of the Will,” I had what Oprah would have called an “aha moment.” I am not sure, like White, that this is the key to Charlotte’s philosophy, but it is a very good idea and one our modern society is sadly lacking.

I was a little disappointed, however, in how White presents this idea. I did not feel like she defines the Way of the Will clearly. In the first chapter, she describes overhearing a mom and daughter in a dressing room fighting over clothing choices. Though she doesn’t bring the idea home, what she implies is that the mom should not impose her choices on the daughter (in this scenario the daughter’s choices seem more conservative, but whether they are or not is not really relevant to the point). If all I knew of what Charlotte calls the Way of the Will were from this book, I would think that it is about letting our children choose and even about teaching them to choose rightly.

This seems on the surface to fall in line with Charlotte’s first principle : Children are Born Persons. We should not intrude upon their personalities by imposing our own wills. And this is true as far as it goes. But it is not the Way of the Will. When Charlotte speaks of the Way of the Will she is not talking about us following our wills but about us bending our wills to a greater standard, to something outside ourselves.

The Way of the Will for Charlotte Mason is more about “Not my will but Yours be done” (Luke 22:42). It is about not doing what we want. It is about doing what we ought, even and especially when it is not what we will. Our modern use of the word willful, as in “that is a willful child,” is exactly the opposite of what the Way of the Will means. A willful child will have his own way. The Way of the Will is about submitting our wills to something grander.

As White presents it, the Way of the Will seems to be about choosing and the role of education is to teach us to choose well. She spends some time discussing specific subjects – math and Plutarch, among others. When we teach these things, when we present good, living books, she says, we give our children the input they need to learn to choose well.

If the goal of education is to learn to choose well, the goal of life is something else. This quote from the end of Minds More Awake seems to encapsulate White’s thoughts. Having just quoted Jean Vanier on the importance of making choices, she says that:

“Charlotte Mason said the same thing: that the function of the Will is to choose, and that character means understanding responsibility. How is the Will enabled to make choices that are not only morally right, but compassionate and people-supporting?” (Kindle loc. 1730)

There is a lot packed in here. There is the idea of the Will as choosing, but there is also something more. There is a goal – to choose what is morally right and beyond that what is “compassionate” and “people-supporting.” Elsewhere White speaks of “ecology and stewardship” (Kindle loc. 405). She does not lay out her own philosophy and goals clearly but I begin to get the idea of what she values. These are not bad things, but to me they are not the main things.

In White’s defense, I will say that one of Charlotte Mason’s better known sound-bites (if you’ll pardon the anachronism) tells us that the goal of education is not “how much they know” but “how much they care.” White’s own philosophy seems to be about caring – for the environment and for people. Again, these are not bad things, but I am also not convinced that Charlotte was using “care” as we now do (and we do tend to throw that word around a lot in our society). I fear we are reading our own modern ideas of what caring means into Charlotte’s statement.

Elsewhere Charlotte says that the goal of life and therefore of education is relationship, first of all with our Creator and secondarily with His creations – both people and the material world (I discussed this concept and gave references from CM’s writings in this earlier post). When Charlotte speaks of caring, I think this is what she is referring to – having relationships. Relationship is intimacy. If I have a relationship with a person, I know him. I can say what he will do in a given circumstance. I don’t just know facts about him; I know his personality. We can have this same level of understanding of things and events, from the Crimean War to toadstools. To know something or someone in such a way makes it almost impossible not to care for them, but it is also much more than caring. It is deeper.

There is a lot I liked in this book, especially when it comes to White’s discussion of the specifics. Overall, I am not sure it is a book I could recommend to those new to Charlotte Mason’s ideas. I feel that she overemphasizes Charlotte’s first principle – “Children are born persons” – focusing too much on the individual’s right to choose. The result is that the concept of the Way of the Will becomes about our choosing – choosing well, yes, but still us choosing – and not about submitting ourselves to the Will of Another. The goals White presents are also different from my goals for my children. I can’t say for sure what Charlotte did mean when she asked “how much they care” but I feel that we are missing something if we use that word “care” (especially in the modern sense which often requires little real knowledge or, ironically, real caring).

There is more I could say about this book, good and bad, but so as to not lose sight of the main points, I think I will leave it there.

Nebby

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